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lately Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR), Provided by researchers at the U.S. Centers for Disease Control (CDC) First look is massive In a number of so-called “super infections” – the COVID-19 infection that occurs in people who have been vaccinated against the disease.
Of the more than 101 million people who were fully vaccinated in the United States during the study period from January to April 30 – meaning they were two weeks away from their last vaccine dose – 10,262 cases of SARS-CoV-2 were reported by state and departments. Local Health Center for Disease Control. This works on only 0.01% of people who have been vaccinated with a confirmed infection, “an extremely low rate,” says Dr. Carlos Del Rio, professor of medicine in the Department of Infectious Diseases at Emory University. “For me, that’s just reassuring proof that vaccines really work.”
No vaccine is 100% effective in protecting people from infection. Indeed, the three vaccines currently authorized in the United States – from Pfizer – BioetecAnd the Moderna And the Johnson & Johnson-JanssenThey are authorized on the basis of their ability to protect people from the symptoms of COVID-19, not infection. But in the months after the vaccines were launched, scientists documented that people who were vaccinated had lower rates of infection than those who had not been vaccinated. In the previous MMWRPublished in March, CDC mentioned In a study of nearly 4,000 healthcare workers, the mRNA vaccine, produced by Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna, was 90% effective in protecting people from SARS-CoV-2 infection.
This protection has been confirmed in a much larger population in the current report. About 27% of sudden infections among the 101 million vaccinated people occurred among those without symptoms of COVID-19, about 10%, or 995 cases, were hospitalized, and 2%, or 160 people died. Of those who were hospitalized, nearly a third were hospitalized because of something else From COVID-19, and among those who have died, about a fifth have died from something other than COVID-19.
“At the end of the day, I think that’s very good news,” says Del Rio. “And when a breakthrough infection does occur, it generally does not have serious clinical consequences. So overall I think this is incredibly reassuring.”
Dr Bonnie Maldonado, professor of pediatrics, epidemiology and population health at Stanford University and a member of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) committee that reviews vaccines and makes immunization recommendations, agrees. “Frankly I think the numbers are staggering. These are miracle vaccines, with better than 90% efficacy in clinical trials, a penetration rate of 0.01%, and almost no serious disease out of the 100 million people tracked. It’s about the best information I can expect,” as you say.
The CDC data also explored, to a limited extent, the role played by new variants of SARS-CoV-2, which spread more easily among people and can cause more severe disease, in superinfections. Researchers have sequenced the virus from only about 5% of penetration cases, however, the data is not robust. But so far, just over half of the infections are shown to be traceable to the more common variant, B.1.1.7 (type). Identified for the first time in the UK), With a recently identified variant from California contributing about a quarter of infections. But since the percentage of metastatic infections is generally small, the immunity that vaccines produce is still sufficient to protect against infection with these variants, and if infection does occur, it leads to less severe disease in many cases.
The authors note that the reported infections could be less than the true truth of the infection, because reporting is voluntary, and because many infected people may not feel symptoms and thus will not be tested and diagnosed. However, based on experience with other vaccines, public health experts expect the rate to remain low, given how effective COVID-19 vaccines are at producing antibodies that neutralize the virus as well as long-term immune defenses.
As a result of these new data, the CDC told states and local health departments that they no longer need to report all superinfections, and instead only notify the CDC when these cases result in hospitalization, severe illness, or death. “these [cases] The director of the CDC, Dr. Rochelle Wallinski, said during a press conference about the change.
Maldonado says there is not much added value in continuing to order all infested infections, especially since many of them appear without any symptoms. She says advanced cases resulting in hospitalization or death will be like a canary in the coal mine when vaccine protection is diminished for any reason.
This can happen simply as time has passed. “By the end of this year, most of the first people will have been vaccinated for about a year, and we may have to rethink what is being reported and what is not reported,” Maldonado says. “Because the question is, will we start losing immunity in a year?” She says state and local health departments will continue to track all new COVID-19 cases – only without reporting milder cases to the CDC. If cases start to spike, health experts can investigate the data to see if vaccinated people began to get infected more, and if so, could the variants be responsible.
For now, Maldonado says, the concern should be about people who have not been vaccinated. This is where new infections start and spread to cause breakouts. “The vaccine is 0% effective if you don’t get it,” she says.
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