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Recent coronavirus infections in vaccinated athletes and government employees have focused on an increase in so-called breakthrough infections. But there has been an increase in people who have been fully vaccinated in recent weeks, with experts saying there is no reason to worry.
A On July 15, the game between the New York Yankees and the Boston Red Sox was postponed Due to multiple confirmed breakthrough cases. A few days later, Cara Iker, U.S. Alternative to the women’s gymnastics team, who were vaccinated in May, The test was positive at the Olympic training camp In Japan. And this week, government officials announced that a White House staffer and House Speaker, Nancy Pelosi, de-Caliphic. The test was positive even after complete vaccination. Positive tests were performed for Six members of the Texas Democrats’ delegation In Washington, DC
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, more than 1,161 million people in the United States have been fully vaccinated. One of them is a small sleeve.
But as epidemics and contagious forms of the virus spread, the number of breakthrough infections is expected to increase. Yet studies have shown that most cases are mild in vaccinated people – if a person develops symptoms – and research has shown that vaccines still provide strong protection against known types.
“The reality is that most of these people have been successfully vaccinated, who test positive, but there is a difference between testing positive and getting sick,” said Angela Rasmussen, a virologist at the Institute for Vaccines and Infectious Diseases at the University of Saskatchewan. Canada.
In other words, people who test positive may have small amounts of the virus in their body – Covid-1 tests are enough to detect but not enough to make them sick.
And because the vaccine works to boost the immune system, it can more quickly identify and attack any invading pathogens.
“If you have a lot of good antibodies, they are bound to the virus before the problem occurs and can make you less likely to get sick,” he said. Said Robert Darnell. Rockefeller University in New York.
Still, breakthrough infections are expected because no vaccine is 100 percent effective. On rare occasions, fully vaccinated people become seriously ill and may die from Covid-1, but most major cases are mild or unpredictable.
This is because most of the vaccines act as a screen to block – but not necessarily all – the virus particles from invading the body. Different factors affect the strength of the membrane and how small the virus particles are able to form a barrier, says Dr. Said Sarah Fortune.
“These variants are more transitional, so they’re better than going on screen,” she said. “The other factor is that the virus is trying to get inside and it is determined by the vaccination rate in your local community. How much of a virus you are at risk.”
The vaccine can also reduce the amount of the virus in the body, limiting the ability of others to transmit it to infected people, although its effects are not yet well understood. More research is needed to measure the impact of asymptomatic breakthrough cases on transmission in particular.
“Most vaccinated people who are infected do not get the virus enough to infect another person,” said Dr. John Smith, a professor of immunology and medicine at the University of Arizona. Janko Nikolich-Yugich said.
Darnell of Rockefeller University said the recent breakthrough infection was not related to an increase in hospital admissions or deaths, which, despite being a new and emerging type, was encouraging evidence that the vaccine was holding up well.
The CDC initially tracked all cases of breakthrough infections, but by May 1 it had turned to focusing only on cases involving hospitalization or death. More than 100 million people in the United States were fully vaccinated at the time, and the CDC recorded more than 10,000 cases of breath-through infections.
Until July 12 The CDC reported 5,492 breakthrough cases In which he was hospitalized or died. Three-quarters of people over the age of over. They are known as breakthrough infections, but covid-1 does not necessarily result in death from hospitalization or death, especially in asymptomatic patients.
Rasmussen said hospital admissions and death rates among older adults are not surprising as older people are usually more vulnerable to serious illnesses than Covid-1. Immunocompromised people Or the underlying situation is similarly high risk.
In Israel, where percent0 percent of people aged 1 and over have been fully vaccinated, researchers studied 122 progressive cases that were hospitalized and found that most people with underlying conditions, such as high blood pressure, diabetes and congestive heart failure. The study was published on July 6 Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infection, It was found that only six cases involved non-patient patients.
Israel reported this month that the Pfizer-Bioentech vaccine was 93 percent effective in preventing hospital admissions and serious illness, but Its effectiveness was 64 percent To prevent infection and symptomatic diseases
A Independent analysis released on June 25 Through public health, England found that two shots of the vaccine, Firefly-Biotin Tech and AstraZeneca, with the Delta variant, were one hundred percent effective in protecting against symptomatic diseases and one percent effective in hospitalization.
The vaccine’s ability to prevent serious disease is critical, Rasmussen said, and the shots appear to be performing well.
“If we start filling ICUs to fully vaccinate people, it shows that these vaccines are no longer effective,” she said.
These vaccines have remained highly effective, yet there is cause for concern if outbreaks occur across the country. The more the virus spreads, the more likely it is that the pathogen will change in such a way that it can lead to more infections, more serious diseases, or help prevent vaccines.
“Every pathogenic arms race ends badly, because that’s a fundamental development,” Fortune said. “The subject we are talking about is trying to prevent the virus from becoming extinct, and evolution is conducive to transmission. Development is conducive to vaccine protection.”
To prevent such an outcome, it is important to focus on vaccinating as many people as possible in the United States and around the world.
“We have a very large number of people who are at high risk of serious illness,” said Nikolich-Yugich. “We shouldn’t be curious or ridiculous about it, but they work in comparison to the question of how to vaccinate as many people as possible.”
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