The Nobel Prizes in Medicine were awarded to David Julius and Ardem Patapotian.

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine was jointly awarded on Monday to David Julius and Ardem Patapautian for their “discovery of receptors for temperature and touch.”

Their work sheds light on various diseases, trauma and how to reduce chronic and acute pain associated with their treatment.

“Our ability to feel heat, cold and touch is essential for survival and for interacting with the world around us.” The Nobel Committee said in a statement. “We assume these sensations in our daily lives, but how are nerve impulses triggered to sense temperature and pressure?”

This question has now been resolved by the committee.

The pair made great discoveries that led to intense research activities that rapidly increased our understanding of how our nervous system perceives heat, cold, and mechanical stimulation. The winners identified critical missing links to understand the intricate interactions between our senses and the environment.

In particular, Mr. Julius used capsaicin, an anti-inflammatory drug that causes inflammation, to detect a sensor at the end of the skin nerves that respond to heat.

Mr. Patapotian discovered a new class of sensors that respond to mechanical stimuli in the skin and internal organs using pressure-sensitive cells.

The Nobel Committee says two scientists helped answer the most profound questions about the human condition: How do we become aware of our environment?

“The underlying mechanisms of our senses have created our curiosity for thousands of years, for example, how light is detected by the eyes, how sound waves affect our inner ears, and how various chemical compounds interact with receptors in our nose and mouth and create odors and tastes,” the committee said. Wrote.

In the 17th century, philosopher Ren रे Descartes invented threads that connect different parts of the skin to the brain. Thus, when the flame touches the foot, a signal is sent to the brain. Subsequent research has shown that sensory neurons report changes in our environment.

In 1944, Joseph Erlanger And Herbert Gasser He received the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his discovery of different types of sensory nerve fibers, which respond to different stimuli, for example, in response to painful and painless touch.

But a fundamental question remains. How are temperature and mechanical stimuli converted into electrical impulses in the nervous system?

The work done by Mr. Julius and Mr. Patapotian, for the first time, allows us to understand how heat, cold, and mechanical forces can trigger nerve impulses that allow us to become aware of the world around us and adapt to it.

Their work, the committee said, has already led to in-depth research for the development of treatments for a wide range of diseases, including chronic pain.

Dr. David Julius is a professor of physiology at the University of California, San Francisco. In the 1990’s, his research into the chemical compound capsaicin led scientists to understand the inflammation caused by pepper. Together with a team of co-workers, he created a library with millions of DNA fragments that are expressed in sensory neurons in response to pain, heat, and touch.

Ardem Patapotian is a molecular biologist and neuroscientist at Scripps Research in La Jolla, California, who “focuses on identifying and characterizing ion channels and other sensors that translate mechanical stimuli into chemical signals.” According to the Centre’s website.

He holds a Ph.D. He completed postdoctoral fellowships at the California Institute of Technology in 1996 and at the University of Southern California before joining the Scripps research team in 2000. In 2017 he was nominated to the National Academy of Sciences and in 2020 he was selected as the American Academy of Arts and Sciences.

In 2020, Dr. Julius and Drs. Got Patapotian Kavali Award in Neuroscience, Which is chaired by the Norwegian government, for the important discovery of their proteins that help the body feel pressure.

Dr. Harvey J. Alter, Michael Houghton and Charles M. Rice got the prize for them Detection of hepatitis C virus. The Nobel Committee said the three scientists “made possible blood tests and new drugs that saved millions of lives.”

  • There are two more science prizes. Both physics on Tuesday and chemistry on Wednesday will be announced in Stockholm.

  • The Literature Prize will be announced in Stockholm on Thursday. Read about Last year’s winner, Lewis Lucky.

  • The Nobel Peace Prize will be announced in Oslo on Friday. Read about last year’s winner, World Food Program.

  • The Nobel Prize in Economics will be announced on October 11 in Stockholm Paul R. Milgrom and Robert b. Wilson.

Add a Comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *